The amount of profit being raised by local councils from parking charges rose by more than 12% last year. A survey by the RAC Foundation found that in 2013/14, councils in England made a combined "profit" of £667m from their on and off-street parking operations. The previous year they made £594m from fines, permits and tickets. Around £293m of the total raised in 2013/14, or 44%, was generated by councils in London, the study found. The RAC said that very few councils were losing money on parking operations, with just 16% of the 353 parking authorities in England reporting negative numbers for 2013/14. The figures were calculated by adding up the amount each council earned from parking charges and penalty notices, then deducting running costs. The foundation said that, while some of the increase in profits was down to a rise in the amount the councils were able to recoup, there was also evidence that many councils were cutting operating costs sharply. The authority with the largest surplus in 2013/14 was previous table-topper Westminster with £51m.