Research into poverty in the UK by the LSE, Manchester University and York University has found that Coalition cuts to tax credits and cash benefits took more away from the poorest than was gained in higher tax allowances. Additionally, savings from these cuts were not sufficient to contribute to deficit reduction as they were offset by the costs paying for lower direct taxes for better-off groups. Programme leader Professor Ruth Lupton said "There is more to the Coalition than cuts. Its major legacy may turn out to be its rapid reforms of the schools system, the NHS, and welfare benefits. But its decisions on where to cut and where to spend have limited its scope either to reduce the debt or protect the poor".